There is no epenthesis from a historical perspective since the a-t is derived from Latin habet 'he has'and so the t is the original third-person verb inflection. However it is correct to call it epenthesis when viewed synchronically since the modern basic form of the verb is a and so the psycholinguistic process is therefore the addition of t to the base form. A similar example is the English indefinite article a, which becomes an before a vowel.
Schwa deletion and epenthesis are optional in Dutch.
In those cases in which schwa deletion and epenthesis occur we have phonological variation. Thus the forms without schwa deletion and epenthesis can be considered the standard forms and those with deletion and epenthesis the phonological variants. The words "melk" milk and "elf" eleven are examples of words which can be pronounced with an epenthetic schwa.
The epenthetic schwa only occurs with heterorganic consonant clusters. This makes sense because more articulatory effort is required to produce consonants which share different places of articulation.
In "hals" neck and "damp" vapour no schwa epenthesis occurs.
The word "hals" has two alveolars and "damp" has two bilabials. Since the clusters in those words are homorganic, the schwa epenthesis rule cannot apply.
In the word "kapelaan" chaplain schwa deletion can apply. English also has examples of optional schwa deletion.
For example, many speakers delete the schwa of "interesting" and "different" to create the consonant clusters "tr" and "fr". The goal of the auditory lexical decision experiment was to determine whether or not the participants would process the phonological variants as quickly and accurately as the standard forms.
Since the phonological variants are optional, the prediction was that the standard forms would be processed more quickly and accurately.
The participants listened to standard realizations and phonological variants of real words as well as pseudowords. They needed to decide as quickly as possible whether the word was real or not.
If they did not decide within 1. The results only partially confirmed the predictions. The experiment revealed that it was easier to process the standard realizations of words than the phonological variants with schwa deletion but not in the case of schwa epenthesis. In the latter case, the phonological variants were processed as quickly and accurately as the standard realizations.
The words with schwa epenthesis were easy to process for participants. The reason is probably due to the fact that the variants with schwa epenthesis had the CVC syllable structure in the coda, a more basic structure than the CCV in the onset of variants with schwa deletion.In this paper, we use articulatory measures to determine whether Dutch schwa epenthesis is an abstract phonological process or a concrete phonetic process depending on articulatory timing.
Uses. Epenthesis arises for a variety of reasons. The phonotactics of a given language may discourage vowels in hiatus or consonant clusters, and a consonant or vowel may be added to make pronunciation easier.. Epenthesis may be represented in writing or be a feature only of the spoken language.
Separating vowels. A consonant may be added to separate vowels in hiatus. A common phenomenon in Dutch, especially in less-formal registers, is schwa epenthesis or schwa insertion. The following list of words illustrates the optional application of the process. Facilitatory Effects of Vowel Epenthesis on Word Processing in Dutch the effects on word processing of insertion of an optional epenthetic vowel in word-final consonant clusters in Dutch.
Such epenthesis turns film, for instance, torosgazete.com DonselaarThe influence of rhythmic context on . Sometimes the term "schwa" is used for any epenthetic vowel, but other languages use different epenthetic vowels (Navajo uses [i]).. In English, schwa is the most common vowel sound.
It is a reduced vowel in many unstressed syllables especially if syllabic consonants are not used. Depending on dialect, it may be written using any of the following letters. BOUNDARY DISPUTES AND SOCIOPHONETIC VARIATION: SCHWA-EPENTHESIS IN DUTCH rC CLUSTERS Koen Sebregts Utrecht University [email protected] ABSTRACT Dutch schwa-epenthesis in liquid+consonant clusters.